Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Coffee is good for you...PART 1

There are always all these controversial things being said about coffee in the health industry. The truth is that coffee is highly beneficial to us, especially women, that is unless you have a challenge metabolizing caffeine or are sensitive to caffeine.

Here are a few articles and research data to change your mind about coffee...


Coffee: The Original Wonder Drug?


The best part of waking up...is reducing your risk of neurodegeneration, and depression, and cancer, and cardiovascular disease, and liver disease... 

It's becoming increasingly clear that coffee is more than just a morning routine. The body of data suggesting that the world's most widely used stimulant is beneficial in a variety of mental and medical conditions is growing at a staggering rate. 
A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that coffee consumption lowered all-cause mortality by over 10% at 13-year follow-up.[1] 

Based primarily on the volume of research studies touting coffee's benefits, the following reviews the potential medical and psychiatric benefits of coffee consumption.

Cardiovascular Disease
It may seem counterintuitive: A substance known to increase blood pressure might actually be good for your cardiovascular system. Caffeine consumption can cause a short-lived increase in blood pressure – a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) – and regular use has been linked to a longer-term increase. However, when caffeine is ingested via coffee, enduring blood pressure elevations are small and CVD risks may be balanced by protective properties. 
Coffee beans contain antioxidant compounds that reduce oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and coffee consumption has been associated with reduced concentrations of inflammatory markers.[2-7] 
Moderate coffee intake was associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease as far out as 10 years,[3] and new data suggest that an average of 2 cups a day protects against heart failure.[8]

Cerebrovascular Disease and Stroke
The vascular benefits of coffee are not lost on the brain. According to a 2011 meta-analysis, consuming between 1 and 6 cups a day reportedly cut stroke risk by 17%.[9] A 22% to 25% risk reduction was seen in a large sample of Swedish women followed for an average of 10 years.[10] And while coffee's impact on stroke risk in those with CVD is still in question, a meta-analysis presented at the European Meeting on Hypertension 2012 found that 1 to 3 cups a day may protect against ischemic stroke in the general population.[11]

Diabetes and Weight Loss
Despite coffee's association with increased blood pressure, the steamy brew appears to benefit other aspects of so-called “metabolic syndrome,” the dangerous cluster of hypertension, hyperglycemia, abnormal lipid levels, and increased body fat. 
Numerous studies have linked regular coffee drinking with improved glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, and a significantly reduced risk for type 2 diabetes.[12-14] 
In a recently published study in Diabetologia, researchers examined whether a change in the amount of coffee consumed has any effect on the subsequent risk for type 2 diabetes among healthy individuals has found that it does, at least for coffee. And the effects become apparent within a relatively short period of time, 4 years. [41] 
Preliminary data from an ongoing study also suggest that coffee consumption can promote weight loss. Overweight patients treated with unroasted coffee beans in supplement form lost an average of 17 pounds over 22 weeks. The study authors suspect that this effect may be due in part to coffee containing chlorogenic acid, a plant compound with antioxidant properties thought to reduce glucose absorption.[15]

Cancer
With so many ingestibles thought to increase cancer risk – soda, grilled meat, all things pickled – at least we can rest easy when it comes to coffee (according to recent data, anyway). Evidence suggests that moderate to heavy coffee consumption can reduce the risk for numerous cancers, including liver cancer (> 4 cups/day),[42] endometrial cancer (> 4 cups/day),[16] prostate cancer (6 cups/day),[17] head and neck cancer (4 cups/day),[18,19] basal cell carcinoma (> 3 cups/day),[20] oral cancer (> 3 cups/day),[39] and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (> 5 cups/day).[21] The benefits are thought to be at least partially due to coffee's antioxidant and antimutagenic properties.[16,18]

Neurodegeneration
It's clear that coffee temporarily affects cognition – try getting through morning rounds without a cup. But new research also links coffee with more enduring effects on cognitive well-being. A study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease showed that patients with mild cognitive impairment and plasma caffeine levels of > 1200 ng/mL – courtesy of ~3 to 5 cups of coffee a day – avoided progression to dementia over the following 2 to 4 years. [22]
Corresponding studies in mice suggest that caffeine suppresses enzymes involved in amyloid-beta production, while coffee consumption boosts G-CSF, interleukin-10, and interleukin-6 levels, cytokines thought to contribute to the reported benefits. 
Caffeinated coffee has long been thought to be neuroprotective in Parkinson disease (PD), and research found that variants in the glutamate-receptor gene GRIN2A affect PD risk in coffee drinkers.[23]Furthermore, data presented at this year's American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting showed that 3 cups of coffee a day may prevent the formation of Lewy bodies, a signature preclinical pathologic finding in PD.[24] 
NOTE: Despite the encouraging associations in neurodegenerative disease, caffeine intake has also been associated with accelerating age of onset of Huntington disease.[25]

Depression
A 2011study suggests that a boost in coffee consumption might also benefit our mental health[26]: Women who drank 2 to 3 cups of coffee per day had a 15% decreased risk for depression compared with those who drank less than 1 cup per week. A 20% decreased risk was seen in those who drank 4 cups or more per day. The short-term effect of coffee on mood may be due to altered serotonin and dopamine activity, whereas the mechanisms behind its potential long-term effects on mood may relate to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, factors that are thought to play a role in depressive illnesses.[26-29]

Liver Disease
The liver might help break down coffee, but coffee might protect the liver (in some cases). Evidence suggests that coffee consumption slows disease progression in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C and reduces the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma.[30-33]
A 2012 study reported that coffee intake is associated with a lower risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),[34] while other recent work found that coffee protects against liver fibrosis in those with already established NAFLD.[32]
In a 2014 study published in Liver International, researchers examined the association of coffee consumption with liver disease, a systematic review of studies on the effects of coffee on liver associated laboratory tests, viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was performed.[40]  The study concluded "Coffee consumption was associated with improved serum gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in a dose dependent manner in individuals at risk for liver disease. In chronic liver disease patients who consume coffee, a decreased risk of progression to cirrhosis, a lowered mortality rate in cirrhosis patients, and a lowered rate of HCC development were observed. In chronic hepatitis C patients, coffee was associated with improved virologic responses to antiviral therapy. Moreover, coffee consumption was inversely related to the severity of steatohepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, in patients with chronic liver disease, daily coffee consumption should be encouraged."

But That's Not All...
A grab-bag of other research suggests that coffee intake may relieve dry-eye syndrome by increasing tear production,[35] reduce the risk for gout,[36] and potentially fight infection.[37] 
Coffee and hot tea consumption were found to be protective against one of the medical community's most concerning bugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),[37] While it remains unclear whether the beverages have systemic antimicrobial activity, study participants who reported any consumption of either were approximately half as likely to have MRSA in their nasal passages.
And Finally, the Risks
As is often the case, with the benefits come the risks, and coffee consumption certainly has negative medical and psychiatric effects to consider. Besides the aforementioned potential increase in blood pressure, coffee can incite or worsen anxiety, insomnia, and tremor and potentially elevate glaucoma risk.[38] 
Additional research is necessary to better assess and balance the potential benefits and drawbacks of coffee consumption. But mounting evidence suggests that going back for a second cup might not necessarily be a bad decision.

References

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  2. Larsson SC, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:993-1001. 
  3. Wu JN, Ho SC, Zhou C, et al. Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies. Int J Cardiol. 2009;137:216-225. 
  4. Natella F, Nardini M, Belelli F, et al. Coffee drinking induces incorporation of phenolic acids into LDL and increases the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:604-609. 
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  15. Vinson JA, Burnham B, Nagendran MV, et al. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects. Program and abstracts of the 243rd American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition; March 25-29, 2012; San Diego, California. Abstract 92.
  16. Je Y, Hankison SE, Tworoger SS, et al. A prospective cohort study of coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer over a 26-year follow-up. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:1-9.
  17. Wilson KM, Kasperzyk JL, Rider JR, et al. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk and progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;8;103:876-884.
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  20. Song F, Qureshi AA, Han J. Increased caffeine intake is associated with reduced risk of Basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3282-3289. 
  21. Li J, Seibold P, Chang-Claude J, et al. Coffee consumption modifies risk of estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R49.
  22. Cao C, Loewenstein DA, Lin X, et al. High blood caffeine levels in MCI linked to lack of progression to dementia. J Alzheimer Dis. 2012;30:559-572.
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  34. Birerdinc A, Stepanova M, Pawloski L, Younossi M. Caffeine is protective in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;3576-82.
  35. Arita R, Yanagi Y, Honda N, Maeda S, et al. Caffeine increases tear volume depending on polymorphisms within the adenosine A2a receptor gene and cytochrome P450 1A2. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:972-978. 
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  37. Matheson EM, Mainous AG, Everett CJ, King DE. Tea and coffee consumption and MRSA nasal carriage. Ann Fam Med. 2011;9:299-304.
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  40. Impact of Coffee on Liver Diseases, A Systematic Review- Sammy Saab, Divya Mallam, Gerald A. Cox II, Myron J. Tong - Liver International. 2014;34(4):495-504.
  41. Upping Coffee Consumption Protects Against Type 2 Diabetes - Diabetologia. Published online April 24, 2014.
  42. Consumption of Coffee Associated With Reduced Risk of Liver Cancer, A Meta-Analysis - Li-Xuan Sang, Bing Chang, Xiao-Hang Li, Min Jiang - BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13(34) 

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